How to Become a Judge in India: Qualification, Eligibility & Salary Explained

If you’re interested in becoming a judge in India, there are specific qualifications and eligibility criteria you will need to meet.

In this article, we will explore the steps you need to take to become a judge in India, including the educational qualification, age limit, and other requirements you will need to fulfill.

Firstly, you need to have a degree in law from a recognized university. Additionally, you must have practiced as an advocate. (Minimum Experience is an eligibility criteria in few states)

The age limit for becoming a judge is between 21 to 35 years, and you must be a citizen of India. (Age criteria varies for few states in India; for example for DJS maximum age limit is 32 Years).

Understanding the Indian Judicial System

To become a judge in India, it is important to have a good understanding of the Indian judicial system.

The Indian judicial system is a hierarchical system with the Supreme Court at the top, followed by High Courts, District Courts, and lower courts.

The Supreme Court of India is the highest judicial forum. It has the power of judicial review and can declare laws passed by the Parliament and State Legislatures as unconstitutional. The Supreme Court also has the power to interpret the Constitution of India.

Below the Supreme Court are the High Courts, which are the highest courts in each state. They have the power of judicial review and can hear appeals from lower courts within their jurisdiction.

District Courts are the lowest level of the judiciary in India. They are located in each district and have jurisdiction over cases within their district. District Courts are presided over by a District Judge.

The Indian judicial system also has specialized courts such as Family Courts, Labour Courts, and Consumer Courts, which have jurisdiction over specific types of cases.

Eligibility Criteria

To become a judge in India, you need to meet certain eligibility criteria. These criteria include educational requirements, age limit, and professional experience.

Educational Requirements

To become a judge in India, you must have a degree in law from a recognized university. You must also be enrolled as an advocate with a State Bar Council.

Age Limit

The age limit for becoming a judge in India is between 21 to 35 years. However, this age limit may vary depending on the state and the type of court you are applying to.

Professional Experience

In addition to the educational requirements and age limit, you must also have a certain level of professional experience to become a judge in India. This experience is necessary to ensure that you have the necessary skills and knowledge to become a judge.

Qualification Process

To become a judge in India, you must meet certain qualifications.

Here are the steps you need to take:

Law Degree

The first step is to obtain a law degree. You must have a bachelor’s degree in law (LLB) from a recognized university or institution.

During your law degree, you will study various subjects such as criminal laws, civil laws, constitutional law, and administrative law. You will also gain practical experience through internships and moot court competitions.

After completing your law degree, you must enroll with the Bar Council of India and obtain a Certificate of Practice. This certificate is mandatory for practicing law in India.

Once you have obtained your law degree and certificate of practice, you can start your career as a lawyer. You must gain experience as a lawyer before you can become a judge. The number of years of experience required varies depending on the court you wish to become a judge in.

In addition to the above qualifications, you must also be a citizen of India, be of good character, and have a sound mind and body. These requirements are essential to ensure that judges are impartial and can make fair decisions.

Appointment of Judges

To become a judge in India, you need to fulfill certain eligibility criteria and qualifications. The appointment of judges in India is a rigorous and competitive process and is governed by the Constitution of India. The appointment process varies depending on the level of the judiciary, i.e., lower judiciary, High Court, or Supreme Court.

Lower Judiciary

To become a judge in the lower judiciary, you need to have a law degree from a recognized university. You also need to clear the state judicial service examination conducted by the respective state public service commission.

The eligibility criteria for the examination may vary from state to state, but generally, you need to be between 21 to 35 years of age and have at least 3 years of experience as a lawyer.

High Court

The judges of a High Court are appointed by the President. The chief justice is appointed by the President after consultation with the chief justice of India and the governor of the state concerned.

Supreme Court

The appointment of Supreme Court judges is done by the President of India in consultation with the Chief Justice of India.

Roles and Responsibilities

As a judge in India, you will have a significant role in upholding justice and the rule of law. Some of your key responsibilities will include:

1. Adjudicating Cases

As a judge, your primary responsibility will be to hear and adjudicate cases in court. You will be responsible for interpreting the law and making decisions based on the evidence presented in court.

You will need to be impartial and objective in your decision-making, and ensure that justice is served.

2. Interpreting Laws

Another important responsibility of a judge is to interpret laws. You will need to have a deep understanding of the legal system and be able to apply legal principles to the cases that come before you.

You will also need to stay up to date with changes in the law and legal precedents.

3. Maintaining Order in the Courtroom

As a judge, you will be responsible for maintaining order and decorum in the courtroom. You will need to ensure that all parties are treated fairly and respectfully, and that proceedings are conducted in an orderly and efficient manner.

4. Managing Court Proceedings

In addition to adjudicating cases, you will also be responsible for managing court proceedings. This will involve scheduling hearings, managing court records, and ensuring that all parties are aware of court dates and deadlines.

5. Upholding Judicial Ethics

As a judge, you will be held to the highest standards of ethical conduct. You will need to be impartial, fair, and unbiased in your decision-making, and avoid any conflicts of interest.

You will also need to maintain the confidentiality of court proceedings and avoid any behavior that could undermine public trust in the judiciary.

Career Path

To become a judge in India, you need to follow a specific career path. Two primary paths are available to become a judge in India; Advocate to Judge and Direct Recruitment.

Salary and Benefits

As a judge in India, you can expect to receive a handsome salary and various benefits.

The salary of a judge depends on the level of the court, experience, and other factors.


The salary of a judge in India varies according to the level of the court.

As of 2024, the salary of a High Court judge ranges from Rs. 2.5 lakh to Rs. 2.75 lakh per month, while the salary of a Supreme Court Judge ranges from Rs. 2.8 lakh to Rs. 3 lakh per month.


In addition to the salary, judges in India are entitled to various benefits such as:

  • Housing: Judges are provided with official residences or housing allowances, depending on their level and location of posting.
  • Medical: Judges and their family members are entitled to free medical treatment at government hospitals and dispensaries.
  • Travel: Judges are provided with official cars and drivers for official use, and they can also claim reimbursement for official travel.
  • Pension: Judges are entitled to a pension after retirement, which is calculated based on their length of service and salary.

Challenges and Considerations

Becoming a judge in India is a challenging and rigorous process that requires a great deal of dedication and hard work. Aspiring judges should be prepared to face several challenges and considerations along the way.

One of the primary challenges of becoming a judge in India is the intense competition for available positions. With a limited number of vacancies and a large number of applicants, the selection process is highly competitive, and only the most qualified candidates are selected.

Another consideration for aspiring judges is the need for a strong academic background.

In addition to a law degree, judges are typically required to have several years of legal experience and a deep understanding of the Indian legal system. Furthermore, judges must possess excellent communication and analytical skills, as well as the ability to remain impartial and objective in their decision-making.

They must also have a strong sense of ethics and integrity, as they will be responsible for upholding the law and protecting the rights of all citizens.


Becoming a judge in India is a long and challenging process. It requires a strong educational background, relevant work experience, and a deep understanding of the Indian legal system.

To become a judge, you must first obtain a law degree and gain experience as a lawyer. You will then need to pass the judicial services examination and undergo rigorous training.

Once you have completed these steps, you can apply for a position as a judge.

The salary of a judge in India is quite lucrative. However, the job is not without its challenges, as judges must make difficult decisions that can have a significant impact on people’s lives.

Overall, if you are passionate about the law and have a strong desire to serve your country, becoming a Judge in India can be a rewarding and fulfilling career choice.

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